Pakistan's Rise to Nuclear Power and the Contribution of German Companies

In PRIF Report No 118 Klaus-Peter Ricke describes the role of German companies in the rise of Paksitan as nuclear power. It is the translation of the HSFK Report 4/2012.

In the 1970s and 1990s, German companies made a key contribution to Pakistan obtaining nuclear weapons. Inadequately equipped government agencies and a lack of legal authority made it impossible for acts of proliferation to be prosecuted.


At the beginning of the 1990s steps were taken, including improvements in
the regulations for granting licenses and in criminal law, allowing these deficits to be rectified. However, depending on the outcome of the legislative process, the impending revision of the German Foreign Trade and Payments Act (Außenwirtschaftsgesetz) might turn out to be a step backwards since export controls are to be modified to correspond to the low standards at the EU level. In a series of case studies, Klaus Peter Ricke outlines events in the past and makes recommendations on how export controls can be improved.

This PRIF Report No 118 "Pakistan's Rise to Nuclear Power and the Contribution of German Companies" is the english translation of the HSFK Report 4/2012.


Dr Klaus-Peter Ricke is a visiting researcher at PRIF. From 1989 to 2006 he was occupied at the Customs Criminal Investigation Office in Cologne. There he was responsible for observing telecommunications and mail correspondence to prevent illegal exports as well as for conducting criminal investigations in cases of suspected violation of the Federal Act on Foreign Trade and the German War Weapons Control Act.


This PRIF Report is available at PRIF for EUR 10,- or as free PDF download.