Cultural Effects of Global Norm Transmission for SSR

This project was conducted with a funding from the federal pact for research and innovation (Leibniz Competition): It investigated security sector reform (SSR) initiatives by way of globally circulating norms (set forth by the UN, NATO or OSCE codes of conduct) in various contexts and from the perspective of their effect on the intended transformation of security culture.

The norm of localizing reform processes

Over the last twenty years, SSR efforts have developed away from state-centered approaches for institutional reform and towards multi-sector conceptions that aim at contributing to life and development in a broader sense. In this context, the significance of approaches that adapt to local conditions for successfully achieving sustainable processes of reform are highlighted as a general norm. However, the perceptions, needs, interests and goals of the various parties involved at the local level can vary greatly. In order to draw out the resulting tensions and their consequences, this project focused on SSR-related interactions in various contexts from the perspective of those involved locally. Relevant initiatives, dialog forums and (re-)positionings of local actors were assessed in terms of how they take up, transform or wholly undermine the normative goals behind the reform efforts. In order to evaluate the impact of the power relations in the existing security institutions the sample combined cases of countries with strong security institutions but deficient or lacking democratic control (Indonesia, Thailand, Turkey) with cases that are rather marked by weak or dysfunctional state security forces, leading in practice to alternative structures and self-help (Guinea-Bissau, Nigeria).

The resonance of global models in producing security

This study aimed at comparative analyses of the actual translations that global norms experience: Through their anchoring in norms, which impacts are achieved by the propagated models, for instance those protecting “human security” in various reform arenas related to security culture or with the functionaries they directly affect? Which dynamics can be observed in regards to the (re-)generation of action-guiding norms aimed at producing “security”? How can local particularities – if any at all – serve as resources in the reform processes? Intensive research was conducted in the reform arenas of the selected cases between 2012 and 2016 to follow these questions. A summarizing report is available for download here: https://www.leibniz-gemeinschaft.de/en/about-us/leibniz-competition/projects-2012/2012-funding-line-5/

The team published numerous articles already and will release a final book publication with Springer VS Publishers.

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1
Thailand’s Security Sector “Deform” and “Reform” | 2021

Chambers, Paul/Waitoolkiat, Napisa (2021): Thailand’s Security Sector “Deform” and “Reform”, PRIF Working Papers No. 52.

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2
Policing in Nigeria | 2021

Müller, Nina (2021): Policing in Nigeria. Sicherheit im Spannungsfeld von globalen Reformkonzepten und lokalen Praktiken, Studien des Leibniz-Instituts Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, Wiesbaden: Springer VS, https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783658322458.

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3
Nigeria’s Police Work between International Reform Ideas and National Security Arrangements | 2020

Müller, Nina (2020): Nigeria’s Police Work between International Reform Ideas and National Security Arrangements, PRIF Working Papers No. 48.

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4
Democratization Interrupted: The Parallel State and the Demise of Democracy in Thailand | 2020

Chambers, Paul (2020): Democratization Interrupted: The Parallel State and the Demise of Democracy in Thailand, in: Croissant, Aurel/Hellmann, Olli (eds), Stateness and Democracy in East Asia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 103–132.

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5
Political Plague: Thailand’s COVID-19 State of Emergency as a Mere Footnote in an Historical Tragedy of Authoritarianism | 2020

Chambers, Paul (2020): Political Plague: Thailand’s COVID-19 State of Emergency as a Mere Footnote in an Historical Tragedy of Authoritarianism, Covid-19 Chronicles, 12.5.2020.

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6
Faction Politics in an Interrupted Democracy: the Case of Thailand | 2020

Chambers, Paul/Waitoolkiat, Napisa (2020): Faction Politics in an Interrupted Democracy: the Case of Thailand, in: Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, Special Issue, DOI: 10.1177/1868103420906020.

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7
Cambodia: Armed Forces Under Personalized Control | 2020

Chambers, Paul (2020): Cambodia: Armed Forces Under Personalized Control, Oxford Research Encyclopedias, 1.4.2020.

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8
The partisan history of police power in Thailand | 2020

Chambers, Paul (2020): The partisan history of police power in Thailand, new mandela, 2.3.2020.

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9
Arch-Royalist Autocracy Unlimited: Civil-Military Relations in Contemporary Thailand | 2020

Chambers, Paul (2020): Arch-Royalist Autocracy Unlimited: Civil-Military Relations in Contemporary Thailand, in: Yamahata, Chosein/Sudo, Sueo/Matsugi, Takashi (eds), Rights and Security in India, Myanmar, and Thailand, Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 193–217, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1439-5.

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10
Thailand’s Thwarted Democratization | 2019

Chambers, Paul/Waitoolkiat, Napisa (2019): Thailand’s Thwarted Democratization, in: Asian Affairs: An American Review, 47:2, 149–175, DOI: 10.1080/00927678.2019.1699226.

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11
Securing an alternative army | 2019

Chambers, Paul (2019): Securing an alternative army. The evolution of the Royal Thai Police, in: Chachavalpongpun, Pavin (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Thailand, Abingdon: Routledge, https://www.routledgehandbooks.com/doi/10.4324/9781315151328-8.

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12
Scrutinising Thailand’s 2019 annual military reshuffle | 2019

Chambers, Paul (2019): Scrutinising Thailand’s 2019 annual military reshuffle, new mandela, 25.9.2019.

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13
Khaki Capital | 2019

Chambers, Paul/Waitoolkiat, Napisa (2019): Khaki Capital. Comparative Conclusions, in: Chambers, Paul/Waitoolkiat, Napisa (eds), Khaki Capital. The Political Economy of the Military in Southeast Asia, Kopenhagen: Nordic Institute for Asian Studies (NIAS) Press, 328-332.

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14
Special Issue: Quagmire of Violence in Thailand’s Southern Borderlands Chapter 1: Introduction | 2019

Chambers, Paul/Waitoolkiat, Napisa/Jitpiromsri, Srisompob (2019): Special Issue: Quagmire of Violence in Thailand’s Southern Borderlands Chapter 1: Introduction, in: Asian Affairs: An American Review, 45:2, 43-55, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00927678.2018.1555924?scroll=top&needAccess=true.

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15
What if Thailand’s Junta Can’t Control the Military? | 2019

Chambers, Paul (2019): What if Thailand’s Junta Can’t Control the Military?, New Mandala, 14.3.2019.

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16
Security Challenges to the 2019 Election in Nigeria | 2019

Ajala, Aderemi Suleiman/Müller, Nina (2019): Security Challenges to the 2019 Election in Nigeria, PRIF BLOG, 12.2.2019.

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17
A Rebuke against a Sister and the Personalising of Monarchical Control | 2019

Chambers, Paul (2019): A Rebuke against a Sister and the Personalising of Monarchical Control, New Mandala, 9.2.2019.

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18
Democratization Interrupted | 2018

Chambers, Paul (2018): Democratization Interrupted. Parallel State and the Demise of Democracy in Thailand, in: Croissant, Aurel ; Hellmann, Olli (ed.), Stateness and the Quality of Democracy in East and Southeast Asia (forthcoming).

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19
Thailand Country Report | 2018

Chambers, Paul (2018): Thailand Country Report, Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung, https://www.bti-project.org/en/reports/(...).

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20
From Alien to Inalienable? | 2018

Lorenz, Philip (2018): From Alien to Inalienable? Changing Attitudes about Human Rights in the Indonesian Security Sector, PRIF Working Papers No. 40, Frankfurt/M.

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21
Sicherheitspolitische Verengung verspielt das Potenzial des SSR-Konzepts | 2018

Mannitz, Sabine (2018): Sicherheitspolitische Verengung verspielt das Potenzial des SSR-Konzepts, PeaceLab-Blog, 7.6.2018.

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22
The Political Economy of the Security Sector: Theoretical Considerations | 2017

Chambers, Paul/Waitoolkiat, Napisa (2017): The Political Economy of the Security Sector: Theoretical Considerations, in: Chambers, Paul/Waitoolkiat, Napisa (eds), Khaki Capital. The Political Economy of the Security Sector in Countries of Southeast Asia, Copenhagen: Nordic Institute for Asian Studies (NIAS) Press, www.niaspress.dk/books/khaki-capital.

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23
Khaki Capital | 2017

Chambers, Paul/Waitoolkiat, Napisa (eds), (2017): Khaki Capital. The Political Economy of the Military in Southeast Asia, Copenhagen: Nordic Institute for Asian Studies (NIAS) Press, www.niaspress.dk/books/khaki-capital.

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24
Thailand Country Report 2016 (Bertelsmann Transformation Index) | 2017

Chambers, Paul (2017): Thailand Country Report 2016 (Bertelsmann Transformation Index), Bertelsmann Transformation Index.

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25
Thailand Country Report 2017 | 2017

Chambers, Paul (2017): Thailand Country Report 2017, www.bertelsmann-transformation-index.de..

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26
Returning Soldiers to the Barracks: Military Reform as the Crucial First Step in Democratising Thailand | 2017

Sripokangkul, Siwach/Chambers, Paul (2017): Returning Soldiers to the Barracks: Military Reform as the Crucial First Step in Democratising Thailand, in: Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 25:1, 1-20, www.pertanika.upm.edu.my/(...).

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27
The Security Sector in Thailand, Cambodia and Laos | 2017

Chambers, Paul/Waitoolkiat, Napisa (2017): The Security Sector in Thailand, Cambodia and Laos, in: Chambers, Paul/Waitoolkiat, Napisa (eds), Khaki Capital. The Political Economy of the Military in Southeast Asia, Copenhagen: Nordic Institute for Asian Studies (NIAS) Press, www.niaspress.dk/books/khaki-capital.

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28
From Paternalism to Facilitation | 2017

Mannitz, Sabine (2017): From Paternalism to Facilitation. SSR Shortcomings and the Potential of Social Anthropological Perspectives, in: Schroeder, Ursula/Chappuis, Fairlie (eds), Building Security in Post-Conflict States. The Domestic Consequences of Security Sector Reform, London: Routledge, 269–285.

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29
Thailand's Junta (Respectfully) Wants the Monarchy To Know Who's Boss | 2016

Chambers, Paul (2016): Thailand's Junta (Respectfully) Wants the Monarchy To Know Who's Boss, Foreign Policy, 30.10.2016.

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30
Guardian of the Kingdom | 2016

Chambers, Paul (2016): Guardian of the Kingdom, New Mandala. New Perspectives on Southeast Asia, 18.10.2016.

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31
Competing Gender Perspectives in Security Sector Reforms in Turkey | 2016

Mannitz, Sabine/Reckhaus, Stephanie (2016): Competing Gender Perspectives in Security Sector Reforms in Turkey, (Gendered Perspectives on International Development (GPID) Working Papers #307), (PDF Download from the GPID Website, 411 KB).

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32
The Resilience of Monarchized Military in Thailand | 2016

Chambers, Paul/Waitoolkiat, Napisa (2016): The Resilience of Monarchized Military in Thailand, in: Journal of Contemporary Asia, 46:3, www.journalofcontemporaryasia.wordpress.com/(..).

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33
Militarization and Securitization in Thailand’s Deep South | 2016

Chambers, Paul/Waitoolkiat, Napisa (2016): Militarization and Securitization in Thailand’s Deep South, in: Deep South Watch (Prince of Songkhla University)/Peace Resource Centre (Berghof Foundation) (eds), The State of Conflict and Peace in the Deep South of Thailand, www.insightonconflict.org/(..).

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34
Introduction: The Upper Guinea Coast in Global Perspective | 2016

Kohl, Christoph (2016): Introduction: The Upper Guinea Coast in Global Perspective, in: Knörr, Jacqueline/Kohl, Christoph (eds), The Upper Guinea Coast in Global Perspective, Oxford, New York: Berghahn, 1-18.

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35
Constitutional Change and Security Forces. Lessons from Thailand, Myanmar and the Philippines | 2016

Chambers, Paul (2016): Constitutional Change and Security Forces. Lessons from Thailand, Myanmar and the Philippines, in: Bünte, Marco/Dressel, Björn (eds), Politics and Constitutions in Southeast Asia, London: Routledge.

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36
Locating the Local | 2016

Paul Chambers, Napisa Waitoolkiat, Srisompob Jitpiromsri, Locating the Local. Untangling Ownership over Security Sector Processes of Peace-Building in Southern Thailand, in: (Hrsg.): World Anthropologies in Practice. Situated Perspectives, Global Knowledge, Bd. 1, London, New Delhi, New York, Sydney: Bloomsbury, 2016. Online: http://www.bloomsbury.com/us/world-anthropologies-in-practice-9781474252638/.

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37
Civil-Military Relations in Thailand since the 2014 Coup | 2015

Chambers, Paul (2015): Civil-Military Relations in Thailand since the 2014 Coup. The Tragedy of Security Sector "Deform", PRIF Report No. 138, Frankfurt/M.

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38
Principals, Partners and Pawns | 2015

Philip Lorenz, Principals, Partners and Pawns, in: Universität Heidelberg, 2015. Online:http://www.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/archiv/18730.

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39
Militär und Politik in Indonesien | 2015

Philip Lorenz, Militär und Politik in Indonesien, in: Gunnar Stange/Rolf Jordan/Kristina Großmann (Hrsg.), Handbuch Indonesien, Berlin, Horlemann Verlag, 2015.

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40
Neo-Sultanistic Tendencies | 2015

Paul Chambers, Neo-Sultanistic Tendencies. The Trajectory of Civil-Military Relations in Cambodia, in: Asian Security, 11(3), Dezember 2015. Online: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14799855.2015.1108965. DOI: 10.1080/14799855.2015.1108965

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41
Political party Finance in Thailand Today | 2015

Paul Chambers, Napisa Waitoolkiat, Political party Finance in Thailand Today. Evolution, Reform, and Control, in: Critical Asian Studies, 47(4), Dezember 2015. Online: http://criticalasianstudies.org/. DOI: 10.1080/14672715.2015.1091211.

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42
Nigeria: Von Boko Haram zum Staatsversagen | 2015

Nina Müller, Nigeria: Von Boko Haram zum Staatsversagen, in: Blätter für deutsche und internationale Politik, Berlin, März 2015, S. 17-21.

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43
Mismatched Perspectives, Expectations and Access between Local and International Actors | 2015

Christoph Kohl, Mismatched Perspectives, Expectations and Access between Local and International Actors: Securing Security and Security Sector Reforms in Guinea-Bissau, in: Etnofoor, 27(2), 2015, S. 73-94.

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44
Diverging Expectations and Perceptions of Peacebuilding? | 2015

Christoph Kohl, Diverging Expectations and Perceptions of Peacebuilding? Local Owners and External Actors Interactions in Guinea-Bissau’s Security Sector Reforms, in: Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 9(3), 2015.

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45
From Paternalism to Facilitation | 2014

Mannitz, Sabine (2014): From Paternalism to Facilitation. SSR Shortcomings and the Potential of Social Anthropological Perspectives, in: International Peacekeeping, 21:2, 269-285, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13533312.2014.910403.

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46
Sicherheitssektorreform und Gender in der Türkei | 2014

Stephanie Reckhaus, Sicherheitssektorreform und Gender in der Türkei. Perspektiven lokaler Frauenorganisationen, Studien der Hessischen Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (Bd. 28), Baden-Baden (Nomos), 2014.

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47
Constitutional Change and Security Forces in Southeast Asia | 2014

Paul Chambers, Constitutional Change and Security Forces in Southeast Asia. Lessons from Thailand and Myanmar, in: Contemporary Southeast Asia, Jg. 36, Nr. 1, 2014.

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48
Thailand's Divided Military | 2014

Paul Chambers, Thailand's Divided Military, in: The Wall Street Journal, 2014. Online: www.wsj.com/articles/thailands-divided-military-1404148174

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49
The Reform of Guinea-Bissau's Security Sector | 2014

Christoph Kohl, The Reform of Guina-Bissau's Security Sector. Between Demand and Practice, PRIF Report No. 126, Frankfurt/M., 2014.

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50
Translationsprobleme in der Reform des Polizeisektors in Guinea-Bissau | 2014

Christoph Kohl, Translationsprobleme in der Reform des Polizeisektors in Guinea-Bissau, HSFK-Report Nr. 6/2014, Frankfurt/M. 

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51
Boko Haram – Terror ohne Ende? | 2014

Nina Müller, Boko Haram – Terror ohne Ende? Der Erfolg der islamistischen Terrorgruppe ist ein Symptom für viele Probleme Nigerias, HSFK-Standpunkte, Nr. 4/2014, Frankfurt/M.

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52
Os desafios da reforma do setor de segurança na República da Guiné-Bissau | 2014

Christoph Kohl, Os desafios da reforma do setor de segurança na República da Guiné-Bissau, in: Sérgio Luiz Cruz Aguilar (Hg.), Reforma do setor de segurança. Teoria, prática e crítica, São Paulo (Porto de Idéias), 2014, S. 160-198.

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53
Irrwege und Auswege | 2013

Christoph Kohl, Irrwege und Auswege. Guinea-Bissau nach dem Putsch im April 2012, HSFK-Standpunkte, Nr. 1/2013, Frankfurt/M.

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54
Wohin steuert Erdoğan? | 2013

Mannitz, Sabine (2013): Wohin steuert Erdoğan? Die Türkei braucht den demokratischen Rückenwind der EU, HSFK-Standpunkte Nr. 4/2013.

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55
Unruly Boots | 2013

Paul Chambers, Unruly Boots: Military Power and Security Sector Reform Efforts in Thailand, PRIF Report No. 121, Frankfurt/M., 2013.

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56
Knights of the Realm | 2013

Chambers, Paul (Hrsg.): Knights of the Realm. Thailand's Military and Police, Then and Now, Bangkok: White Lotus, 2013, 738 S.. Online: http://www.whitelotusbooks.com/bookdetail.php?id=E22678

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57
Patronage, Personalismus, Professionalisierung? | 2013

Philip Lorenz, Patronage, Personalismus, Professionalisierung? Die vorsichtige Demokratisierung zivil-militärischer Beziehungen in Indonesien, HSFK-Report Nr. 3/2013, Frankfurt/M.

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58
Sicherheitssektorreform in Guinea | 2013

Alena Mehlau, Sicherheitssektorreform in Guinea: Ohne eine umfassende Einbindung des Justizsystems wird die Reform scheitern, HSFK-Standpunkte, Nr. 10/2013, Frankfurt/M.

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59
Military 'Shadows' in Thailand since the 2006 Coup | 2013

Paul Chambers, Military 'Shadows' in Thailand since the 2006 Coup, in: Asian Affairs: An American Review Jg. 40, Nr. 2, 2013, S. 56-82.

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60
Die Reform des Sicherheitssektors in Guinea-Bissau | 2013

Christoph Kohl, Die Reform des Sicherheitssektors in Guinea-Bissau, HSFK-Report Nr. 8/2013, Frankfurt/M.

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61
Guinea-Bissau | 2012

Christoph Kohl, Guinea-Bissau, in: Andreas Mehler/Henning Melber/Klaas van Walraven (Hg.), Africa Yearbook. Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara in 2011, Leiden and Boston (Brill), 2012, S. 115-121

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62
Trouble in Thailand | 2012

Paul Chambers, Trouble in Thailand: Failed Civilian Control amidst Fruitless Demilitarisation, in: Rajesh Basru/Kartik Bommakanti (Hg.), Demilitarising the State: the South and Southeast Asian Experience, Singapore (S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University), 2012, S. 56-81

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63
Thailand Country Report | 2011

Paul Chambers, Thailand Country Report, in: Bertelsmann Transformation Index 2012, 2011.

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Partners

Dr Paul Chambers (Chiang Mai University, Thailand)
Dr. Philip Lorenz (Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg)

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